GEMSTONES FOUND IN SRI LANKA
Sri Lanka is one of the peak gem bearing countries in the world gone the highest density of gems in the world and is a global sourcing destination for greater than 75 varieties of precious and semi-precious gemstones.
GEM DEPOSITS IN SRI LANKA
A large majority of gem deposits found in Sri Lanka are sedimentary in nature. More than 90% of the island is made occurring of Precambrian metamorphic rocks and can be at odds into four major divisions:
Eastern Vijayan Complex
Western Vijayan Complex
Over the postscript few million years, intense weather and quick erosion have resolute rise to thick and extensive accumulations of sediments in the flood plains of rivers, in lakes, and in now-buried river channels in the Highland perplexing. It is within these weathering products that significant subsidiary-alluvial-gem deposits are collected. Except for a few alluvial occurrences in the Eastern Vijayan Complex, just about every single one Sri Lankan gem deposits have been found within the Highland and to a lesser extent Southwest Groups.
Today. large expanses of alluvial deposits have been extensively mined in the main Ratnapura and Elahera gem fields in Sri Lanka, where a majority of coloured gemstones are found.
GEMSTONES FROM SRI LANKA
While there are 200 types of mineral found across the world, Sri Lanka is flaming to almost 75 varieties of coloured and colourless gemstones belonging to ten main species.
The corundum intimates of gemstones consist of some of the most necessary and capably-liked gemstones including ruby and sapphire. Compact, dense, and lacking gemstone cleavage corundums are furthermore the second hardest natural mineral after diamond. These factors make both varieties of corundum some of the most very desired jewellery stones. Ruby is the red variety of corundum. All new colours of corundum, including colourless corundum, are called sapphires. Gems belonging to corundum species can display asterism & chatoyancy due to the presence of oriented mineral inclusions, & in some cases, a modify of colour in serve viewed out cold interchange well-ventilated sources.
Considered to be the most indispensable gemstone variety in the Corundum mineral species, the appreciative red in Ruby is caused by the presence of chromium. The colour spectrum of Rubies found across the world varies from ocher-red to purplish red. Colour is the most significant factor affecting a rubys value: Fine gems are a resolved, busy red to slightly purplish red.
Most Sri Lankan Ruby varieties are of a pinkish red and display a tint of weak purple, caused by the presence of iron in partner in crime to chromium oxide, which is unique to its Sri Lankan descent. Ruby deposits in Sri Lanka are not distinctively localized & are found in the linked mine gone new gemstones of the Corundum familial though the stones of bigger environment have been often found within the Embilipitiya Udawalawe place.
Although blue is the colour most widely identified in addition to sapphires, the colour of sapphire can range from blue to violet, green, orange, tawny, pink, periwinkle, & intermediate hues known as fancy sapphires.
Sri Lanka is the summit source of finest Ceylon Sapphires to the global flavor & exports Ceylon Blue Sapphire, Padparadscha, star sapphires, & range of fancy sapphires to the global gem markets.
In toting happening to their ornamental purposes, sapphires are in addition to used in purely effective applications, such as infrared optical components, high-durability windows, wristwatch crystals & organization bearings, & utterly slender electronic wafers, which are used as the insulating substrates of special-direct strong-divulge electronics such as integrated circuits & GaN-based blue LEDs.
The Beryl intimates of gemstones adjoin some of the most popular & costly gemstones in the world including Emeralds & Aquamarines. While Red Beryls are some of the rarest & most costly gemstones in the world, chemically omnipresent beryl is colourless & the presence of reference elements causes green, blue, pink, red & orangey colours.
The most important gemstone of the Beryl family is Green Emerald, coloured by the presence of chromium or vanadium even though the blue colour in Aquamarine is caused by the presence of Iron.
Found in green-blue to blue colour variations, aquamarine crystals get the blue space due to the presence of iron within the crystal. They are comparatively large & expertly-formed & the elevation of sea blue colour is most intense in large specimens though the colour in smaller stones is comparatively lighter. Unlike supplementary coloured gemstones, aquamarines value comes primarily from its heavens rather than the hue & saturation & stones considering darker sky are very-priced & sought after.
Often found each and every one flawless, aquamarine has been found in Rathnapura, Rakwana, Morawaka, Hatton, Nawalapitiya, Galle, Matara, Tissamaharama & Lunugamwehera in Sri Lanka.
Although the common term Cats Eye is used a propos alternating mineral species, the most popular Cats Eye is the scarce gemstones belonging to the Chrysoberyl associates. Yet not all Chrysoberyls display this unique chatoyancy effect. While transparent to translucent Chrysoberyls without a chatoyancy effect is quite common in Sri Lanka, Chatoyant chrysoberyls are clip into cabochons to best display their spectacular eyes & are much sought after in the local & global market. The Chrysoberyl species of gemstones adding together two types namely Cymophane & Alexandrite.
Cymophane (Chrysoberyl Cats Eye)
A variety of chrysoberyls displaying chatoyancy caused by the buoyant reflecting from inclusions of little parallel needles or hollow tubes, cymophane are commonly known as cats eye.
Chrysoberyl occurs in varying degrees of transparency ranging from transparent & sure to cloudy translucent & opaque. Widely distributed within the main gem producing regions of this country & mostly localized vis–vis Rakwana, Bulutota, Deniyaya, Morawaka, Elahera, Avissawella, Pelawatte, Horana, Matugama, Panadura, Rathnapura, Aluthgama, Ambalantota, Agalawaththa, Bulathsinghala, Kalapugama & Mestiya, the colour of Cymophane or Cats Eye differ from semi-transparent golden-tawny to slightly greenish-tawny or brownish-orangey colour.
Fondly known as an Emerald by Day and a Ruby by Night, Alexandrite is a type of Chrysoberyl that is rare yet adequately found in Sri Lanka. Their high flier to shift colours from red to green in imitation of viewed knocked out vary open sources makes Alexandrite a highly sought after gemstone in the global push. A strongly pleochroic gem, which displays swap colours behind viewed from exchange directions, the three pleochroic colours of Alexandrite are green, yellowish-brown, & weak lackluster purple-red.
However, the gem’s colour regulate doesnt arise from the gems pleochroism, but from the minerals weird lighthearted-absorbing properties. Although most Alexandrites found in Sri Lanka can be faceted, there is an occasional occurrence of colour changing alexandrite cats eye.
Abundant, sweet, affordable & colourful spinels are closely in red, pink & blue colour & can occasionally exhibit asterism & chatoyancy. Spinel is a gemstone found in colossal abundance in Sri Lanka & until the rise of militant gemology in the 19th & 20th Century spinels were often mistakenly identified as Corundums, as they were mostly found in the amalgamated mine. Subsequent research into the mineral composition of these two gem families led to their enmity & many gem enthusiasts finding that their beloved rubies & sapphires are in take dream of fact spinels.
Natural spinel, however, has always been a rare & beautiful gem. Sri Lanka is the second largest supplier of spinel to the global gem & jewellery push in the manner of colours ranging from ruby red, pink, yellowish-brown, shades of reddish-brown, purple, blue, bluish-green, purple, greenish-black, black to colourless. The occurrence of natural blue spinel coloured by cobalt has been found in Sri Lanka. Cobalt spinel has been found in version to Ratnapura, Okkampitiya & Embilipitiya. Apart from the common varieties of spinel are after that varieties identified as Ceylonite, Gahnite & Ghanospinel.
Gemstones belonging to the relatives of Garnet occur in a multitude of colours except for blue & are straightforward in several varieties including almandine, andradite, grossular, pyrope, spessartine & uvarovite. With the exception of andradite & uvarovite, all the new types of Garnets are within attain in Sri Lanka, once some displaying asterism, chatoyancy & a colour alter once viewed out cold oscillate types of lighting.
All garnets have truly the related crystal structure, but they change in chemical composition. There are sophisticated than twenty garnet categories, called species, but only five are commercially important as gems. Garnet types found in Sri Lanka back commercial value put in;
Available in every portion of the colours of the rainbow, Tourmaline afterward has a no investigate puzzling mineral composition, which is the main defense astern their affluent colour composition. Gemstones from Sri Lanka belonging to the Tourmaline species differ from yellowish-green to shiny green.
One of the most important gem Tourmalines found in Sri Lanka are mixtures of Dravite and Uvite. Often beige, yellowish-brown, reddish-brown, or about black in colour, these species contain traces of vanadium, chromium, or both. When knack in the right concentrations, these impurities fabricate animate green hues same to tsavorite garnet.
While Uvite is plentiful in calcium, magnesium, and aluminium and Dravite is live in sodium, magnesium, and aluminium; both forms within limestone that have been altered by heat and pressure and are fondly known as Savanna Tourmaline by gem dealers and merchants.
Most of the brown and yellowish-brown varieties are located mainly as regards Uva, Ratnapura and Tissamaharama regions in Sri Lanka though Lunugala, Bibile, Passara, Nilgala region, Horana, Matugama, Pelawatte, Morawaka, Deniyaya, Rakwana areas in the country in addition to fabricate impressive specimens.
A versatile species of gemstones, Topazes are straightforward in a variety of colours and colourless forms. Often identified by the hue pronounce, such as pink or blue topaz, some of the most costly and rare topaz have proclamation names unadulterated to them. The high values red and pink stones are known as Imperial Topaz though the terms Precious Topaz or Sherry Topaz refers to stones back a wealthy ocher to a medium, peachy yellowish-brown colour.
A nimbly-liked every unconventional for diamond roughly the world, Zircon is colourless in its chemically purest form. Mostly found in Matara Sri Lanka, colourless zircons are stage publicize Matara Zircon or Matara Diamonds. Colourless zircon found in Sri Lanka is severely praised for its brilliance and flashes of multicoloured buoyant, called flare. Meanwhile, zircon is plus typically found in an array of colours from brown, red, blue, purple, and rarely green. Often mortified by cubic zirconia, Zircon has high brilliance and dispersion.
Quartz is a large relatives of gemstones and occurs in many colours and varieties. In its purest form quartz is colourless but are friendly in a range of colours and forms including;
A feeble purple variety of the mineral quartz, the finest amethyst colour is mighty reddish-mauve to periwinkle taking into consideration no visible colour zoning. Coloured by Iron, the shades of Amethyst occur in transparent pastel roses to deep purples. Like many add-on gemstones, the air of Amethyst varies according to its source. The best varieties of amethyst can be found in Siberia, Sri Lanka, Brazil and the in the make unapproachable and wide East.
A delicate pink parable of the mineral quartz, Rose Quartz features shades changing from utterly spacious to medium-dark pink. Always found in terrible form sans the regular, flat crystal faces Rose Quartz is typically found in pegmatites, but along with occurs in hydrothermal veins and owes its delicate pink colour to microscopic inclusions of similar silicate mineral fibres. Sri Lanka is a leading source for pleasing setting rose quartz rocks.
A translucent variety of microcrystalline quartz, Agate is a semi-over the top chalcedony up in a broad range of colours including brown, white, red, grey, pink, black, and tawny. The colours are caused by traces of oxides of iron, manganese, titanium, chromium, nickel, and calculation elements and occur as oscillate bands within the stone. Patterns of colour or moss-in the by now inclusions may distinguish this stone from option forms of chalcedony, and Sri Lanka is taking into consideration ease-liked for blue-tinted agate.
Rare in flora and fauna, Citrine is a transparent, lackluster ocher to brownish ocher variety of quartz. One of the most popular and frequently purchased yellowish-brown gemstones, finest citrine gemstones have the colours of saturated orangey to reddish-orange pardon of brownish tints. Citrine crystals occur in Russia and in Madagascar a broad range of sizes and are readily easy to get to in flora and fauna even if Sri Lanka exports option amethyst heat-treated into Citrine.
Feldspar is a silicate mineral that makes going on on elevation of 50% of Earths crust. Feldspar minerals are used in many industries including manufacturing of a broad variety of glass and ceramic products and as fillers in paints, plastics and rubber. Several popular gemstones including Moonstone associate the Feldspar mineral associates
Moonstones are a pretentious stone belonging to the Feldspar class of minerals and are commended for its magical shining feeling caused by adularescence. Meetiyagoda mines in Sri Lanka is the source of the world much-admired Blue Moonstones. Classical moonstones are always clip as cabochons.However, some Moonstones feature a cat’s eye effect or a four-spoked star in evolve to the typical undulating shimmer of lighthearted. These stones are not single-handedly graze as cabochons but with as artistic cameos or engraved considering designs.